The Immigration Assessment Authority (the IAA) was established in April 2015,  as a separate office within the Refugee Review Tribunal. From 1 July 2015, the IAA became an independent authority within the Migration and Refugee Division of the Administrative Appeals Tribunal. The IAA is independent of the Department of Home Affairs (formerly the Department of Immigration and Border Protection) and of the Minister.

The role of the IAA is to conduct reviews of fast track reviewable decisions. Fast track reviewable decisions are those decisions made by the Minister for Immigration and Border Protection, or delegate, to refuse to grant a protection visa to a fast track applicant.